He said: I … It is likely that the latter is a conflation of variants. [ar]14 He shot his[as] arrows and scattered them,[at]many lightning bolts[au] and routed them. The grave wrapped its ropes around me; death laid a trap in my path. And he rode upon a cherub, and did fly: yea, he did fly upon the wings of the wind. I crushed them so that they couldn't get up. of … I beat them fine as dust before the wind; I cast them out like the mire of the streets. The verbs עָבָרוּ (’avaru; Ps 18:12) and בָּעֲרוּ (ba’aru; 2 Sam 22:13) appear to be variants involving a transposition of the first two letters. The foundations of the mountains shook; they quaked because of his anger. He brought me forth also into a large place; he delivered me, because he delighted in me. God’s way is perfect. ESV® Text Edition: 2016. Leading a blameless life meant that the king would be loyal to God’s covenant, purge the government and society of evil and unjust officials, and reward loyalty to the Lord (see Ps 101). In my distress I called upon the Lord; to my God I cried for help. And who is a rock, except our God?—. I have lived the way the Lord wanted me to. He sent great flashes of lightning and chased the enemies away. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 165-67. tn Heb “coals burned from him.” Perhaps the psalmist pictures God’s fiery breath igniting coals (cf. http://netbible.com All rights reserved. This probably alludes to the fact that the psalmist will praise the Lord in the presence of the defeated nations when they, as his subjects, bring their tribute payments. 11-12, 14]; 103:7; 138:5; 145:17). He's my place of safety. I pursued my enemies and overtook them, and did not turn back till they were consumed. 3 I called to … Here the Lord himself is compared to a horn. I chased my enemies and caught them; I did not stop until they were conquered. See R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. You placed my foot on their necks. The bottom of the sea could be seen. tc Ps 18:42 reads, “I empty them out” (Hiphil of ריק), while 2 Sam 22:43 reads, “I crush them, I stomp on them” (juxtaposing the synonyms דקק and רקע). diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 1983), 241-42. tn Heb “the word of the Lord is purified.” The Lord’s “word” probably refers here to his oracle(s) of victory delivered to the psalmist before the battle(s) described in the following context. The psalmist uses hyperbole to emphasize his God-given military superiority. 46  The Lord is living; praise be to my Rock, and let the God of my salvation be honoured. You armed me with strength for battle; you humbled my adversaries before me. He shows it to me and my family forever. 11  He made darkness his secret place; his pavilion round about him were dark waters and thick clouds of the skies. [av]15 The depths[aw] of the sea[ax] were exposed;the inner regions[ay] of the world were uncoveredby[az] your battle cry,[ba] Lord,by the powerful breath from your nose. tn Heb “their prisons.” The besieged cities of the foreigners are compared to prisons. They are pictured as winged creatures (Exod 25:20; 37:9; 1 Kgs 6:24-27; Ezek 10:8, 19) and serve as the very throne of God when the ark of the covenant is in view (Pss 80:1; 99:1; see Num 7:89; 1 Sam 4:4; 2 Sam 6:2; 2 Kgs 19:15). 24  Therefore hath the LORD recompensed me according to my righteousness, according to the cleanness of my hands in his eyesight. 43  Thou hast delivered me from the strivings of the people; and thou hast made me the head of the heathen: a people whom I have not known shall serve me. To the faithful you show yourself faithful; to those with integrity you show integrity. For a more extensive discussion of the theme of divine deception in the OT, see R. B. Chisholm, “Does God Deceive?” BSac 155 (1998): 11-28. tn Or perhaps, “humble” (note the contrast with those who are proud). A destroying flood swept over me. The LORD is my rock, and my fortress, and my deliverer; my God, my strength, in whom I will trust; my buckler, and the horn of my salvation, and my high tower. The sorrows of death compassed me, and the floods of ungodly men made me afraid. Proud member 2 Sam 22:48 reads “and [is the one who] brings down nations beneath me.”, tn Heb “[the one who] delivers me.” 2 Sam 22:49 reads “and [the one who] brings me out.”. Though one might expect a preposition to follow the verb here, this need not be the case with the verb רוּץ (ruts; see 1 Sam 17:22). 44  From the time when my name comes to their ears they will be ruled by me: men of other countries will, with false hearts, put themselves under my authority. For I have kept the ways of the Lord, and have not wickedly departed from my God. Of David the servant of the Lord. tn Heb “his anointed [one],” i.e., the psalmist/Davidic king. General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). 32a, 33a, and 34a to describe what God characteristically does on his behalf. The form עַנְוַתְךָ (’anvatÿkha) may be a fully written form of the suffixed infinitive construct of עָנָה (’anah, “to answer”; a defectively written form of the infinitive appears in 2 Sam 22:36). [dn]40 You make my enemies retreat;[do]I destroy those who hate me. 50  Great salvation does he give to his king; he has mercy on the king of his selection, David, and on his seed for ever. Psalm 18:2: The Lord is my rock, my fortress and my deliverer; my God is my rock, in whom I take refuge, my shieldOr "sovereign" and the horn"Horn" here symbolizes strength. Great deliverance giveth he to his king; and sheweth mercy to his anointed, to David, and to his seed for evermore. On him who has mercy you will have mercy; to the upright you will be upright; He who is holy will see that you are holy; but to the man whose way is not straight you will be a hard judge. See 1 Sam 23:25, 28. sn My stronghold. He trains my hands for war, so that my arms can bend a bow of bronze. tn Heb “a cherub.” Because of the typical associations of the word “cherub” in English with chubby winged babies, the term has been rendered “winged angel” in the translation.sn Winged angel (Heb “cherub”). See R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” (Th.D. I will send up my cry to the Lord, who is to be praised; so will I be made safe from those who are against me. He shot his arrows and scattered his enemies; great bolts of lightning flashed, and they were confused. 15  Then the channels of waters were seen, and the foundations of the world were discovered at thy rebuke, O LORD, at the blast of the breath of thy nostrils. From his temple he heard my voice. I do not turn back until I wipe them out. Thou hast enlarged my steps under me, that my feet did not slip. He maketh my feet like hinds'feet , and setteth me upon my high places. For by you I can run against a troop, and by my God I can leap over a wall. Keel, The Symbolism of the Biblical World, 265. tn Heb “and a bow of bronze is bent by my arms”; or “my arms bend a bow of bronze.” The verb נָחַת (nakhat) apparently means “pull back, bend” here (see HALOT 692 s.v. The cords of death encompassed me; the torrents of destruction assailed me; the cords of Sheol entangled me; the snares of death confronted me. vv. And I was upright before him, and I kept myself from sin. Despite its unreduced form, the verb is better taken as a preterite. [n]3 I called[o] to the Lord, who is worthy of praise,[p]and I was delivered from my enemies.4 The waves[q] of death engulfed me,the currents[r] of chaos[s] overwhelmed me. They confronted me in the day of my calamity, but the Lord was my support. See A. Caquot, TDOT 3:53, and note the use of the verb in Pss 68:30; 106:9; and Nah 1:4, as well as the related noun in Job 26:11; Pss 9:5; 76:6; 104:7; Isa 50:2; 51:20; 66:15. tn 2 Sam 22:16 reads “by the battle cry of the Lord, by the blast of the breath of his nose.” The phrase “blast of the breath” (Heb “breath of breath”) employs an appositional genitive. Keel, The Symbolism of the Biblical World, 294-97. tn Heb “you make those who rise against me kneel beneath me.”sn My foes kneel before me. 4, 9-10). He made darkness his covering, his canopy around him, thick clouds dark with water. So I will give you thanks before the nations. In this case one might translate, “he shot lightning bolts and routed them.” Other options include (2) understanding רָב (rav) as an adverbial use of the adjective, “lightning bolts in abundance,” or (3) emending the form to רַבּוּ (rabbu), from רָבַב (ravav, “be many”) or to רָבוּ (ravu), from רָבָה (ravah, “be many”) – both a haplography of the vav (ו); note the initial vav on the immediately following form – and translating “lightning bolts were in abundance.”sn Arrows and lightning bolts are associated in other texts (see Pss 77:17-18; 144:6; Zech 9:14), as well as in ancient Near Eastern art (see R. B. Chisholm, “An Exegetical and Theological Study of Psalm 18/2 Samuel 22” [Th.D. [bl]21 For I have obeyed the Lord’s commands;[bm]I have not rebelled against my God. He shrouded himself in darkness, veiling his approach with dark rain clouds.

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