demonstrative, indefinite, interrogative, negative, and possessive) adjectives are placed before the noun: Some adjectives have both a figurative and an analytic (literal) sense and can thus be placed on either side of the noun. If the noun is feminine, the adjective describing it must also be feminine. A man would say mon livre when talking about a book, and a woman would also say mon livre. They are considerably more complicated than English possessive adjectives because French has several different forms depending on the gender and number of the possessed noun. Likewise, both men and women would say ma maison, because "house" is feminine in French. Adjectives agree in number and gender with the noun or pronoun that they are modifying. © 2020 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Véronique Mazet has a doctorate in French from the University of Texas at Austin and is the author of two successful grammar books. For example, son lit can mean "his bed," "her bed," or "its bed" (for example, the dog's). An adjective is a word that modifies a noun by describing it in some way: shape, color, size, nationality, etc. ThoughtCo uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. French possessive adjectives are used in similar ways to English possessive adjectives, but there are some differences in form. The French possessive adjectives are: mon / ton / son / notre / votre / leur in the masculine singular; ma / ta / sa / notre / votre / leur in the feminine singular; mes / tes / ses / nos / vos / leurs in the plural; Possessive adjectives come before the noun they refer to. But remember, in French, you also need to make your adjectives agree with the word it is describing.But that's a different lesson which you can access here: A Complete and Easy Guide to French Adjectives. Ending in -et: For adjectives that end in -et, replace -et with -ète to form the feminine singular, like discret/discrète (discreet), complet/complète (complete), and secret/secrète (secret). Be careful when you see masculine adjectives ending in ‐e, ‐eux, ‐f, and ‐ er, because for those, you do not simply add e. (Note that adding this e to a previously silent consonant causes that consonant to be pronounced. Note: These rules are the same for making nouns feminine and plural. Ending in -on or -ien: For adjectives that end in -on or -ien, double the -n before adding the -e to form the feminine singular, like mignon to mignonne (cute). Masculine singular adjectives ending in ‐ er form the feminine by changing ‐ er to ‐ ére, as shown in Table 5. These normally have an analytical meaning, in that they classify the noun into a certain category. In French grammar, there are three forms of the possessive for each singular person (I, you, he/she/it). The possessive adjective is almost never used with body parts in French. CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. For some, just add -e to the masculine -eur form: inférieur (inferior) becomes inférieure, supérieur (superior) becomes supérieure, intérieur (interior) becomes intérieure, and meilleur (better) changes to meilleure. Learn about adjectives in French grammar with Lingolia, then test yourself in the free exercises. Masculine singular adjectives ending in eux form the feminine by changing ‐ x to ‐ se, as shown in Table 3. Adjectives that end in a vowel plus L or N usually become feminine by doubling the consonant before adding E. Adjectives that end in er or et need a grave accent: Other final letters lead to very irregular feminine endings: Irregular plurals: The ending al changes to aux in the plural: Note: Most of the above rules are the same for making nouns feminine and plural. Son, sa, and ses can each mean his, her, or its, depending on the context. This difference between English and French possessive adjectives can be particularly confusing when using him, her, or it. Tables for many French adjectives, comparison, all forms, adverbs\ ... Conjugation trainers • French • German • Italian • Latin • Spanish: Declension trainer • French (adjectives) • Latin: adjectives - nouns - pronouns: Written numerals • English • French • German In this case, the possessive's final consonant is pronounced (the "n" in the example below) to achieve fluid pronunciation. When a feminine noun begins with a vowel, the masculine possessive adjective is used: When a feminine noun begins with a vowel, the masculine possessive adjective is used: An important difference between French and English is that French utilizes the gender of the noun to determine which form to use, not the gender of the subject. Most French adjectives are regular, but there are a number of irregular adjectives, based on the final letter(s) of the masculine singular adjective. All French adjectives agree in number (singular or plural) and gender (masculine or feminine) with the nouns they describe. He's washing his hair (literally "He's washing the hair of himself"). bookmarked pages associated with this title. Many adjectives of nationality and regionality are in this category, like canadien/canadienne (Canadian), parisien/parisienne (Parisian), and italien/italienne (Italian). An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun. This rule also has exceptions, and not all adjectives in -eur turn to -euse in the feminine. When the adjective is figurative, it goes before the noun, and when it's analytic, it goes after the noun. If you need to stress the gender of the person the item belongs to, you can use à lui ("belonging to him") or à elle ("belonging to her"). It doesn't matter whether the owner of the house is male or female. They are called, To make an adjective agree with a feminine singular noun or pronoun, you usually add, Several adjectives ending in a consonant double their consonant as well as adding, To make an adjective agree with a masculine plural noun or pronoun, you usually add, To make an adjective agree with a feminine plural noun or pronoun, you usually add. There are several French adjectives which have irregular feminine and plural forms, as well as a special form when they are placed in front of a masculine noun that begins with a vowel or a mute H: In English, adjectives virtually always precede the nouns they modify: a blue car, a big house. Sometimes you have to double the consonant as well as adding an. Possessive adjectives are the words used in place of articles to indicate to whom or to what something belongs. An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun. Forming Plural from Singular Adjectives. Masculine and feminine forms are spelled and pronounced in the same manner, as follows: Form the singular feminine of singular masculine adjectives ending in é by adding ‐ e, as shown in Table 2. Some examples include fumeur (smoking) to fumeuse and luxueux (luxurious) to luxueuse. Translate adjective in context, with … Differences Between French and English Adjectives, Masculine and Feminine French Nouns ~ Noms, French Demonstrative Adjectives: Adjectifs Démonstratifs, How the French Describe Clothing Shape, Texture and More, French Determiners: Adjectifs déterminants, How and When to Use French Possessive Pronouns, French Indefinite Adjectives (Adjectifs Indéfinis), Understanding French Numerical Adjectives, Invariable French Adjectives ~ Adjectifs Invariables, It's 'Ces Filles' in French, Not 'Cettes', Learn to Use the French Word 'Tout' and Its Variations, In English, adjectives are always found in front of the noun, but most French adjectives follow the noun they modify:​. Get the latest news and gain access to exclusive updates and offers, Create an account and sign in to access this FREE content, If a masculine adjective ends in a vowel (, If a masculine adjective ends with a consonant that is not pronounced, such as, This is also true when you have to double the consonant before the, Masculine form in front of a word beginning with a consonant, Masculine form in front of a word beginning with a vowel or most words beginning with h, The partitive article: du, de la, de l’ and des, Comparatives and superlatives of adjectives, Demonstrative adjectives: ce, cette, cet and ces, Using different types of pronoun together, Relative pronouns: qui, que, lequel, auquel, duquel, Demonstrative pronouns: ce, cela/ça, ceci, celui, The present tense: regular -er (first conjugation) verbs, The present tense: regular -ir (second conjugation) verbs, The present tense: regular -re (third conjugation) verbs, The present tense: spelling changes in -er verbs, Prepositions consisting of more than one word, lovely, beautiful, good-looking, handsome. Some adjectives, however, must be placed before the noun they describe, and still others can go either before or after, depending on their meaning.

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